This book introduces the most important problems of reference and considers the solutions that have been proposed to explain them. Reference is at the centre of debate among linguists and philosophers and, as Barbara Abbott shows, this has been the case for centuries. She begins by examining the basic issue of how far reference is a two place (words-world) or a three place (speakers-words-world) relation. She then discusses the main aspects of the field and the issues associated with them, including those concerning proper names; direct reference and individual concepts; the difference between referential and quantificational descriptions; pronouns and indexicality; concepts like definitenes...
"Systematizes and develops in a comprehensive study Nelson Goodman's philosophy of language. The Goodman-Elgin point of view is important and sophisticated, and deals with a number of issues, such as metaphor, ignored by most other theories." -- John R Perry, Stanford University
How do language and thought connect to things in the world? John Hawthorne and David Manley offer an original and ambitious treatment of the semantic phenomenon of reference and the cognitive phenomenon of singular thought, leading to a new unified account of definite and indefinite descriptions, names, and demonstratives.
In this book, Scott Soames defends the revolution in philosophy led by Saul Kripke, Hilary Putnam, and David Kaplan against attack from those wishing to revive descriptivism in the philosophy of language, internalism in the philosophy of mind, and conceptualism in the foundations of modality. Soames explains how, in the last twenty-five years, this attack on the anti-descriptivist revolution has coalesced around a technical development called two-dimensional modal logic that seeks to reinterpret the Kripkean categories of the necessary aposteriori and the contingent apriori in ways that drain them of their far-reaching philosophical significance. Arguing against this reinterpretation, Soames...
The concept of 'animacy' concerns the fundamental and cognitive question of the extent to which we recognize and express living things as saliently human-like or animal-like. In Animacy and Reference Mutsumi Yamamoto pursues two main objectives: First, to establish a conceptual framework of animacy, and secondly, to explain how the concept of animacy can be reflected in the use of referential expressions. Unlike previous studies on the subject focussing on grammatical manifestations, Animacy and Reference sheds light upon the conceptual properties of animacy itself and its reflection in referential processes. For the research of this study the author focussed on languages that show completely different tendencies. As a result, English and Japanese 'parallel corpora' are analysed yielding salient observations and opening intriguing discussions.
A Speaker’s Guidebook is the best resource in the classroom, on the job, and in the community. Praised for connecting with students who use and keep it year after year, this tabbed, comb-bound text covers all the topics typically taught in the introductory course and is the easiest-to-use public speaking text available. In every edition, hundreds of instructors have helped us focus on the fundamental challenges of the public speaking classroom. Improving on this tradition, the fifth edition does even more to address these challenges with stronger coverage of overcoming speech anxiety, organizing and outlining, and more. And as the realties of public speaking change, so does A Speaker’s Guidebook; the new edition also focuses on presentational speaking in a digital world — from finding credible sources online to delivering presentations in a variety of mediated formats. Read the preface.
This unique 2-in-1 reference presents vital information on pathophysiology in two helpful ways on every page. The wide inner column contains detailed narrative text; the narrow outer column contains brief bulleted summaries of the same information. This format enables nurses to quickly scan the bulleted points and jump to in-depth information as needed without turning the page. Organized by body system, the book covers 220 diseases and disorders. Two 8-page full-color inserts illustrate selected disorders. Illustrations and flowcharts demonstrate abnormal structures and pathophysiologic processes. Icons highlight complications, life-threatening disorders, emergency interventions, and effects of treatment on disease processes.